Coronal Step

Removal of lling material and aring of the coronal portion of the canal:

Manual penetration using a thin and stiff manual le (e.g. a No. 10 K steel le shortened by a few mm) to pierce the lling material and create a 2-3 mm channel.
CORONAL is used to widen the canal entries and remove lling from 2-3 mm with a withdrawing movement, leaning on the walls.
Irrigation and solvent renewal.
Manual penetration using a No. 15 K steel file going a few millimetres deeper.
MEDIAN is used for working deeper than the CORONAL.
This tool works by traction.
Irrigation and solvent renewal.

Apical Step

Preparation and lling removal of the apical portion of the canal:

Manual No. 15 K file precurved, to explore this portion of the canal. Measuring the length of the canal, if feasible at this stage.
Copious irrigation.
APICAL 1 is used on the whole length of the root canal that has been made accessible using the No. 15 file.
Copious irrigation.
APICAL 2 is used to remove the filling material and clear the canal.
Check apical patency using a No. 10 K le just beyond the extent of the work.